The purpose of this section is to provide information about perpetrators. This section will address societal myths, contributing factors to why a person commits rape, the role of alcohol, and studies focusing on college male rapists. It is designed to inform panelists about the reality of this offense so that they are as informed as possible when hearing sexual-violence related cases.
The purpose of this section is to familiarize the reader with how both SAPAC and the state of Michigan define sexual assault. In addition, it is designed to provide an overview of consent and coercion, two issues that lie at the center of sexual assault. Also, examples of rape myths versus facts are provided. It is imperative that panelists have a complete understanding of definitions, consent, coercion, and rape myths before hearing a sexual violence-related case.
Definition of Sexual Harassment
Sexual harassment is defined as unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when either:
Stalkers come from every walk of life and every socio-economic background. Virtually anyone can be a stalker, just as anyone can be a stalking survivor. There are, however, some general categories that stalkers fit into.
Drugs used by perpetrators to incapacitate and rape people exist in the University of Michigan community and are on the rise. The most common rape drug is alcohol.
Several misconceptions exist about sexual assault. These misconceptions often shift responsibility and blame from the assailant to the victim. Understanding the misconceptions surrounding sexual assault may help you in your recovery. What happened to you was a crime. You are not to blame for the assailant’s behavior.
The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of the scope of the problem of dating and domestic violence on college campuses, as well as barriers that may exist for students in accessing resources. It is designed to dispel myths and provide information about the prevalence of these issues so that panelists will be as informed as possible about the reality of these offenses.
What is Consent?
Consent is when someone agrees, gives permission, or says "yes" to sexual activity with other persons. Consent is always freely given and all people in a sexual situation must feel that they are able to say "yes" or "no" or stop the sexual activity at any point.
How common is the sexual assault of males?
Recent guidance from the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights highlights the nationwide impact of sexual misconduct on campus and makes specific recommendations regarding how colleges and universities respond to sexual misconduct allegations.
Pursuant to this guidance, as well as our own ongoing commitment to creating an environment free from sexual misconduct, we developed a procedure for addressing sexual misconduct allegations against students at the University of Michigan. This procedure supersedes the processes specific to sexual misconduct currently outlined in the Statement of Student Rights and Responsibilities and is in effect starting August 19th, 2013.
Survivors of sexual assault experience a wide range of reactions. Some have said that after the assault their emotions go up and down or from one extreme to another. It is important for you to know that what you are feeling and thinking right now is okay. Your reactions are your own way of coping with the crime that has been committed against you.
There is no standard response to sexual assault. You may experience a few, none, or all of the following:
The impact of sexual violence on different communities can be understood by looking at challenges unique to each community. Communities of color often face multiple barriers when dealing with the aftermath of sexual violence. Kimberle Crenshaw described these barriers as being built and strengthened through “the imposition of one burden interacting with pre-existing vulnerabilities to create yet another dimension of disempowerment” (Crenshaw, 1991).
Coercion is a tactic used by perpetrators to intimidate, trick or force someone to have sex with him/her without physical force.This article explains coercion and gives examples of scenarios which involve coercion.
Information on Reporting Sexual Assault to the Police and/or the University
It is the survivor’s right to choose whether to report the sexual assault.
Law enforcement officers are not confidential resources.
Many survivors who decide to report do not do so immediately. It is never too late to make a report or to seek help from the University or other agencies. A prompt report may strengthen the case for prosecution.
A 2006 study by The American Association of University Women indicates the following:
- 62% of female college students report having been sexually harassed at their university, with 80% of the reported harassment being peer-to-peer.
- 51% of male college students admit to sexually harassing someone in college, with 22% admitting to harassing someone often or occasionally.
It is important to acknowledge that statistics do not give a complete picture of the pervasiveness of the problem as most sexual harassment situations go unreported.
Each survivor of sexual assault responds uniquely to the assault, and the recovery process is different for each individual. These reactions may be experienced days, months, or years after an assault. Survivors suffer a great deal of physical and emotional trauma as a result of a sexual assault. Responses to a sexual assault can be immediate or delayed. Each survivor responds uniquely, and the recovery process is different for each individual.
Gender stereotyping and enforced adherence to it play a major role in battering.
In Michigan the legal term used for sexual assault or rape is Criminal Sexual Conduct (CSC). The following information provides definitions of CSC and the potential consequences. A link to the current legal definitions relating to CSC may be found here. If the perpetrator is charged with one of these crimes, an advocate at the local rape crisis center can help you better understand the charges and the criminal justice process.
SAPAC Volunteer Training is an intensive program of 20 hours spread over a two week period. Volunteer Training provides pertinent information for students to be effective in their role as SAPAC volunteers (in their respective volunteer program). Student volunteers will understand the framework for how their role as a volunteer (and their volunteer program) fit into the larger University comphrensive plan to prevent sexual violence (primary, secondary tertiary). This training will provide a foundation for student volunteers to use as a starting point in developing their skills throughout their time volunteering with SAPAC. Volunteer Training is a requirement if you are interested in volunteering with the Bystander Intervention and Community Engagement Program, Networking, Publicity, and Activism Program; or Peer Education Program.
The following is a list of suggestions that may help you increase your safety if you are being stalked. The goal is to allow the stalker as little personal information about you as possible. Since each case of stalking is unique, there is no single list that will ensure complete safety.